Today I read the prediction made by Bill Gates that there would be no poor country after 2035. Although I have been reading such statements, I never thought as deeply as I thought after reading Bill’s prediction. Even if I am a socialist, I realized that we couldn’t eradicate poverty completely. The simple logic I have is based on my knowledge of dosage compensation in heterogametic organisms like human. It might be that I am wrong, as I am not an economist. However, I think the evolution of sex chromosome can be a good model to understand the existence of poverty and how to balance it rather than eradicating it.
In any organisms which sex is determined by a divergent chromosome pair (X and Y), there is an imbalance in gene dosage between sexes. Female contains two copy of X chromosome where as male contains only one copy of X chromosome and one copy of Y chromosome. This imbalance creates a problem during early development and thus nature has evolved a compensatory mechanism to overcome this problem. This is called as dosage compensation. This causes either inactivation of one copy of X-chromosome in female (as in human) or increase the rate of transcription of X-linked genes by two fold in male as in fly. The dosage compensation is coupled with degeneration of Y chromosome that is sex-limited.
This sex-limitation of Y chromosome greatly reduced their proportion in population, and therefore; for every pair of male and female, there is only one Y chromosome (minor chromosome) for three X chromosomes. The ratio of minor and major chromosome can be maintained either by altering the proportion of males and females that contribute for the next generation or by increasing the rate of success of one sex compared to the other. In human male is heterogametic, and this explains that polygamy nature of male is selected by nature. Polygamy male helps to keep the Y chromosome in the population as each Y chromosome are different due to lack of recombination and degeneration of Y chromosome. If a female mate more than one male, it might affect the fitness of all male due to a recessive mutation on X chromosome and it will also reduce the diversity of female population.
Due to degeneration, there is gene loss from Y chromosome due to integration of repetitive DNA elements. For example, Y chromosome in human codes for 27 male-specific protein compare to >1,000 found on X chromosome. Along with lack of recombination and genetic drift, gene loss act to degrade Y chromosome. This suggests that Y chromosome can degenerate to the point of its disappearance from the population. Many researches support this hypothesis by referring the lack of Y chromosome in many other organisms like C. elegans. However, the rate of loss of gene appears to be asymptotic rather than linear. It explains that the rate of gene loss from Y chromosome gets slower as the time progress. The younger the Y chromosome, the higher the rate of gene loss would be. This is equivalent to the enzymatic reaction where we never get the 100 % saturation or Vmax irrespective of amount of substrate or enzyme. If we consider Vmax or disappearance of Y chromosome as a time when every one will be equally rich and equally poor, we will reach there after infinite time. My point is we will never achieve that and thus some part of this world will be still poor at any time of measurement. That stage will be disaster. It is good to have few very rich people than few very poor people. First condition will keep the society in equilibrium (conservation of torque in Physics). On the basis of this theory, I think that it is impossible to eradicate poverty completely. In other words, very few people will be selected to be rich like mating and thus majority will be poor (According to the theory that nature selects few to contribute in the next generation). The question arises then what would be the solution. In my opinion, the solution is the evolution of Y chromosome i.e., strong selection for genes (quality) residing on Y chromosome (the poor). Similarly, if we change our society in such a way that people from resources poor area must be selected at any given time for contributing in the development of society. In that case, even if there is no distribution of resources equally (equivalent to no crossing over), both poor and rich will complement each other to develop society (equivalent to mating of X and Y chromosome to form the next generation).
Thus, the rich and the poor are equivalent to X and Y chromosome, and they are complementary to each other. This similarity suggests us that we should either reduce the number of involvement of rich people (limit their activity for fewer things) or make the poor to decide the most important decision of the society. On the basis of dosage compensation in fly, we should try to increase the number of resources or activity in the poor are i.e., to involve them in multiple things. This will make the society multimodal (equivalent to Y chromosome polygamy) with respect to utilization of resources. Now, society looks like having a single mode (monogamy) i.e., fewer people utilize most of the resources.
Polygamy is a solution for eradication of poverty.